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The sheriff is the highest-ranking law enforcement officer in each of the state`s 100 counties, but has no authority over state or local officials. The sheriff has full authority to hire and dismiss deputies and other employees of the sheriff`s office according to his will and pleasure. Deputies and prison guards serve a sentence at the same time as the sheriff, which must not exceed 4 years and must be re-sworn in every 4 years. Prison guards are prison officers and must complete a 160-hour prison train-the-trainer course, although some are also doubly trained and sworn in as assistants. Deputies must complete the basic training course (BLET) of more than 600 hours prescribed by the state or follow a “reintegration” or reintegration program for former or lateral (out of state) students. Apart from the option of reinstatement, the training of MPs is the same as that of police officers and other certified officers. However, the sheriff can hire assistants and has one year to train and certify them. This allows a sheriff to take office if he wants to replace all or part of a department with untrained appointees, and then there is one year left to train and certify the new deputies. Deputies are a political extension of the sheriff and have no independent legal authority, and when an arrest or act is made in an official capacity, it is made in the name of the sheriff as the de facto authority. All California peace officials are able to exercise their policing powers anywhere in the state, on duty or off duty, regardless of county or municipal boundaries, so California sheriffs and their agents have full police powers in incorporated and unincorporated communities, outside their own counties, and on state highways and highways.

As New York City`s primary civil law enforcement agency, the Sheriff`s Office typically acts as the executor of civil judgments the city has obtained against individuals and businesses. The agency also executes judgments on behalf of private petitioners. While the sheriff and his deputies retain their status as peace and law enforcement officers, traditional patrol and other law enforcement functions are performed by other government departments: the NYPD oversees law enforcement; the Department of Corrections administers the city`s prisons; the coroner`s office performs the duties of coroner; and court officials deal with the security of the courts themselves and the closures in courthouses. The New York City Sheriff`s Office offers criminal investigations into cases of tax and document fraud and illegal tobacco distribution and smuggling. [55] [56] [57] The status of Pennsylvania County sheriffs has been in a legal gray area for many years. While sheriffs regularly provided court security, transportation of prisoners, civilian trial service, and arrest of arrest warrants, it was unclear whether they had law enforcement powers. From the 1970s to the early 1990s, a number of defendants accused of crimes committed by deputy sheriffs attempted to suppress the results of their arrests on the grounds that MPs were not real law enforcement officers. A sheriff must be a peace officer certified by the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy, as required by the Iowa Chapter 80B code, or must complete the basic training course within one year of taking up his or her duties. Iowa deputy sheriffs are subject to the Public Service Act, which ensures that they are removed from office after their probationary period only for valid reasons.

Deputy sheriffs must complete the state law enforcement academy in their first year of employment. Specifically, the Michigan State Police have general law enforcement powers throughout the state. Thus, all Michigan residents have at least two levels of general police services (state police and sheriff`s offices), while residents of a community that has its own police department have a third level of general police service. In Arkansas, sheriffs and their deputies are fully licensed peace officers with statewide jurisdiction and can therefore legally exercise authority in unincorporated and incorporated areas of a county. Under state law, sheriffs and their deputies, as well as all other law enforcement and peace officials, are on duty 24 hours a day, meaning they can make arrests with or without a warrant (provided the arrest without a warrant is the result of a violation of the law committed in their presence or sight). As part of the government of the city of Philadelphia, which includes the county, the sheriff is elected for a four-year term.[69] The sheriff provides basic court-related services, such as transportation of detainees, courthouse security, and other duties related to the service of cases and subpoenas issued by district and state courts. The sheriff also conducts evictions and auctions of real estate in foreclosure and confiscation of personal property (movable property) to comply with a judgment. The Philadelphia Sheriff`s Department has expressed its intention to conduct law enforcement in the community while continuing its statutory obligations.

[70] Until recently, most sheriff`s officers wore a standardized uniform (black pants and shirts with a dark gray straw Stetson hat in the summer and a black felt Stetson hat in the winter with a black Class A jacket for the uniform and a black leather jacket for the winter) and all patrol cars were marked the same (white with red stripes, etc.). Several counties have moved away from these practices. Patrol cars in these counties have different vehicle markings, and deputy sheriffs wear different uniforms. A few examples include Ulster County, which has dark gray uniforms similar to the New York State Police; and Warren County, whose deputy sheriffs wear brown shirts with dark brown pants. Dutchess County deputy sheriffs wear Class B tactical uniforms, consisting of black shirts and black pants and a Class A uniform with light blue shirts with darker blue pants. In Suffolk County, sheriff`s vehicles are in black and white (similar to the police/sheriff vehicle system used in California). In New York City, deputy sheriffs wear uniforms very similar to Sworn NYPD staff. Ontario County Sheriff`s Deputies wear the traditional uniform; Black pants, black shirt with brass buttons and a black Stetson.

In the state of South Dakota, the sheriff`s duties under the law are as follows: “Sheriff to keep the peace – arrest criminals – conduct the trial. The sheriff shall preserve and preserve the peace in his county, for the purpose of which he is authorized to call upon him the persons or the power of his county to obtain such assistance as he deems necessary […].

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